SUBJECT AREA: Science — GRADE LEVEL: Early High School
BENCHMARK: 11.A.4a Formulate hypotheses referencing prior research and knowledge.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.4b Conduct controlled experiments or simulations to test hypotheses.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.4c Collect, organize and analyze data accurately and precisely.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.4d Apply statistical methods to the data to read and support conclusions.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.4e Formulate alternative hypotheses to explain unexpected results.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.4f Using available technology, report, display and defend to an audience conclusions drawn from investigations.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.4a Identify a technological design problem inherent in a commonly used product.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.4b Propose and compare different solution designs to the design problem based upon given constraints including available tools, materials and time.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.4d Determine the criteria upon which the designs will be judged, identify, advantages and disadvantages of the designs and select the most promising design.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.4e Develop and test a prototype or simulation of the solution design using available materials, instruments and technology.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.4f Evaluate the test results based on established criteria, note sources of error and recommend improvements.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.4g Using available technology, report to an audience the relative success of the design based on the test results and criteria.
BENCHMARK: 12.B.4a Compare physical, ecological and behavioral factors that influence interactions and interdependence of organisms.
BENCHMARK: 12.B.4b Simulate and analyze factors that influence the size and stability of populations within ecosystems (e.g., birth rate, death rate, predation, migration patterns).
BENCHMARK: 13.A.4a Estimate and suggest ways to reduce the degree of risk involved in science activities.
BENCHMARK: 13.A.4b Assess the validity of scientific data by analyzing the results, sample set, sample size, similar previous experimentation, possible misrepresentation of data presented and potential sources of error.
BENCHMARK: 13.A.4c Describe how scientific knowledge, explanations and technological designs may change with new information over time (e.g., the understanding of DNA, the design of computers.
BENCHMARK: 13.A.4d Explain how peer review helps to assure the accurate use of data and improves the scientific process.
BENCHMARK: 13.B.4a Compare and contrast scientific inquiry and technological design as pure and applied sciences.
BENCHMARK: 13.B.4b Analyze a particular occupation to identify decisions that may be influenced by a knowledge of science.
BENCHMARK: 13.B.4c Analyze ways that resource management and technology can be used to accommodate population trends.
BENCHMARK: 13.B.4d Analyze local examples of resource use, technology use or conservation programs; document findings; and make recommendations for improvements.
BENCHMARK: 13.B.4e Evaluate claims derived from purported scientific studies used in advertising and marketing strategies.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.5a Formulate hypotheses referencing prior research and knowledge.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.5b Design procedures to test the selected hypotheses.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.5c Conduct systematic controlled experiments to test the selected hypotheses.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.5d Apply statistical methods to make predictions and to test the accuracy of results.
BENCHMARK: 11.A.5e Report, display and defend the results of investigations to audiences that may include professionals and technical experts.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.5a Identify a design problem that has practical applications and propose possible solutions, considering such constraints as available tools, materials, time and costs.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.5b Select criteria for a successful design solution to the identified problem.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.5c Build and test different models or simulations of the design solution using suitable materials, tools and technology.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.5d Choose a model and refine its design based on the test results.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.5e Apply established criteria to evaluate the suitability, acceptability, benefits, drawbacks and consequences for the tested design solution and recommend modifications and refinements.
BENCHMARK: 11.B.5f Using available technology, prepare and present findings of the tested design solution to an audience that may include professional and technical experts.
BENCHMARK: 12.A.5a Explain changes within cells and organisms in response to stimuli and changing environmental conditions (e.g., homeostasis, dormancy).
BENCHMARK: 13.A.5a Design procedures and policies to eliminate or reduce risk in potentially hazardous science activities.
BENCHMARK: 13.A.5b Explain criteria that scientists use to evaluate the validity of scientific claims and theories.
BENCHMARK: 13.A.5c Explain the strengths, weaknesses and uses of research methodologies including observational studies, controlled laboratory experiments, computer modeling and statistical studies.
BENCHMARK: 13.A.5d Explain, using a practical example (e.g., cold fusion), why experimental replication and peer review are essential to scientific claims.
BENCHMARK: 13.B.5a Analyze challenges created by international competition for increases in scientific knowledge and technological capabilities (e.g., patent issues, industrial espionage, technology obsolescence).
BENCHMARK: 13.B.5b Analyze and describe the processes and effects of scientific and technological breakthroughs.
BENCHMARK: 13.B.5c Design and conduct an environmental impact study, analyze findings and justify recommendations.
BENCHMARK: 13.B.5d Analyze the costs, benefits and effects of scientific and technological policies at the local, state, national and global levels (e.g., genetic research, Internet access).
BENCHMARK: 13.B.5e Assess how scientific and technological progress has affected other fields of study, careers and job markets and aspects of everyday life.