Science

SUBJECT AREA: Science  — GRADE LEVEL: Early High School

BENCHMARK:  11.A.4a  Formulate hypotheses referencing prior research and knowledge.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.4b  Conduct controlled experiments or simulations to test hypotheses.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.4c  Collect, organize and analyze data accurately and precisely.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.4d  Apply statistical methods to the data to read and support conclusions.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.4e  Formulate alternative hypotheses to explain unexpected results.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.4f  Using available technology, report, display and defend to an audience conclusions drawn from investigations.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.4a  Identify a technological design problem inherent in a commonly used product.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.4b  Propose and compare different solution designs to the design problem based upon given constraints including available tools, materials and time.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.4d  Determine the criteria upon which the designs will be judged, identify, advantages and disadvantages of the designs and select the most promising design.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.4e  Develop and test a prototype or simulation of the solution design using available materials, instruments and technology.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.4f  Evaluate the test results based on established criteria, note sources of error and recommend improvements.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.4g  Using available technology, report to an audience the relative success of the design based on the test results and criteria.

BENCHMARK:  12.B.4a  Compare physical, ecological and behavioral factors that influence interactions and interdependence of organisms.

BENCHMARK:  12.B.4b  Simulate and analyze factors that influence the size and stability of populations within ecosystems (e.g., birth rate, death rate, predation, migration patterns).

BENCHMARK:  13.A.4a  Estimate and suggest ways to reduce the degree of risk involved in science activities.

BENCHMARK:  13.A.4b  Assess the validity of scientific data by analyzing the results, sample set, sample size, similar previous experimentation, possible misrepresentation of data presented and potential sources of error.

BENCHMARK:  13.A.4c  Describe how scientific knowledge, explanations and technological designs may change with new information over time (e.g., the understanding of DNA, the design of computers.

BENCHMARK:  13.A.4d  Explain how peer review helps to assure the accurate use of data and improves the scientific process.

BENCHMARK:  13.B.4a  Compare and contrast scientific inquiry and technological design as pure and applied sciences.

BENCHMARK:  13.B.4b  Analyze a particular occupation to identify decisions that may be influenced by a knowledge of science.

BENCHMARK:  13.B.4c  Analyze ways that resource management and technology can be used to accommodate population trends.

BENCHMARK:  13.B.4d  Analyze local examples of resource use, technology use or conservation programs; document findings; and make recommendations for improvements.

BENCHMARK:  13.B.4e  Evaluate claims derived from purported scientific studies used in advertising and marketing strategies.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.5a  Formulate hypotheses referencing prior research and knowledge.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.5b  Design procedures to test the selected hypotheses.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.5c  Conduct systematic controlled experiments to test the selected hypotheses.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.5d  Apply statistical methods to make predictions and to test the accuracy of results.

BENCHMARK:  11.A.5e  Report, display and defend the results of investigations to audiences that may include professionals and technical experts.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.5a  Identify a design problem that has practical applications and propose possible solutions, considering such constraints as available tools, materials, time and costs.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.5b  Select criteria for a successful design solution to the identified problem.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.5c  Build and test different models or simulations of the design solution using suitable materials, tools and technology.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.5d  Choose a model and refine its design based on the test results.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.5e  Apply established criteria to evaluate the suitability, acceptability, benefits, drawbacks and consequences for the tested design solution and recommend modifications and refinements.

BENCHMARK:  11.B.5f  Using available technology, prepare and present findings of the tested design solution to an audience that may include professional and technical experts.

BENCHMARK:  12.A.5a  Explain changes within cells and organisms in response to stimuli and changing environmental conditions (e.g., homeostasis, dormancy).

BENCHMARK:  13.A.5a  Design procedures and policies to eliminate or reduce risk in potentially hazardous science activities.

BENCHMARK:  13.A.5b  Explain criteria that scientists use to evaluate the validity of scientific claims and theories.

BENCHMARK:  13.A.5c  Explain the strengths, weaknesses and uses of research methodologies including observational studies, controlled laboratory experiments, computer modeling and statistical studies.

BENCHMARK:  13.A.5d  Explain, using a practical example (e.g., cold fusion), why experimental replication and peer review are essential to scientific claims.

BENCHMARK:  13.B.5a  Analyze challenges created by international competition for increases in scientific knowledge and technological capabilities (e.g., patent issues, industrial espionage, technology obsolescence).

BENCHMARK:  13.B.5b  Analyze and describe the processes and effects of scientific and technological breakthroughs.

BENCHMARK:  13.B.5c  Design and conduct an environmental impact study, analyze findings and justify recommendations.

BENCHMARK:  13.B.5d  Analyze the costs, benefits and effects of scientific and technological policies at the local, state, national and global levels (e.g., genetic research, Internet access).

BENCHMARK:  13.B.5e  Assess how scientific and technological progress has affected other fields of study, careers and job markets and aspects of everyday life.

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